Using Goals and Micro-Conversions in Analytics to Match Your Customer Funnel

Often, when webmasters and business owners try to identify the ultimate purpose of their website, they think of one thing: Sales. Increasing revenue is often the number one purpose for any given website, no matter what the business. While different types of businesses have different ways to increase revenue, it’s pretty typical that most business owners and marketing managers are primarily concerned about the site’s impact on their bottom line before anything else.   The mechanics that influence the bottom line can vary dramatically: Webmasters may be relying on product sales and eCommerce transactions. Lead generation sites may gather new customers primarily from contact forms that arm their sales team with the information needed to follow up. Content writers and blogs may focus on engagement metrics so they can monetize their site to advertisers. Whatever the case, there are measureable milestones that can act as great performance indicators for sites of all types.   However, as the digital world continues to become more complex, with more and more channels used to market your business, and more steps that lead customers from discovery to conversion, it’s important to measure all goals on your site and ensure they align with your customer’s journey. Below, we look at three different types of websites and the macro-conversions and micro-conversions often associated with each of these types of sites.

Setting Up Goals for eCommerce Sites

E-Commerce websites have a pretty straightforward purpose, and it should come as no surprise that the primary macro-conversion should be a sale. But what steps go into identifying the micro-conversions that might come with your eCommerce site?   CrazyEgg recommends first identifying the macro-conversions for your site, and then simply brainstorming other activities that can act as milestones to signal that a user might be close to purchasing or further engaging with your content. These can include the following:  
  • Signing up for a newsletter
  • Adding a product to a user’s cart or favorites
  • Reading or writing reviews
  • Watching a video about the product
  • Sharing the product on social media
  Once you’ve identified the tools in your marketing arsenal that can serve as micro-conversions, the next step is learning how to measure them. Depending on the tracking that you’re using, this can include destination URLs set up within Analytics, or events to be tracked using either Google Analytics or Google Tag Manager.   The training video above walks over how to set up goals and events for eCommerce sites. For Tag Manager, the video below walks over the details of integrating tags in Tag Manager with your data layer to synchronize goals with Google Analytics.   Ensure that you track the micro-conversions on your site, and nurture the channels and marketing efforts that are leading users to these small conversions prior to a purchase. For instance, if you find that users are adding an item to their cart yet not converting, this can alert you to complications within the purchasing funnel that may be preventing a sale. First, take a look at your purchasing funnel and monitor any exit pages for drop-offs. While you make fixes to simplify the purchasing process, nurture the channels and marketing messages that are driving users to the product. Some guiding questions can include:  
  • Have any social media campaigns explicitly focused on this product?
  • Where are people adding the product? Is this a featured product from your homepage, or are users actively seeking out the product through your navigation?
  • Are you driving users to land on this particular product page using AdWords, the Display Network, or organic search?
  Double-down on these marketing efforts to ensure that you continue to drive a steady stream of leads to the site. In doing so, you’re helping customers to discover your site, build trust, and can ultimately retarget the user until a purchase is made.

Lead Generation

With a lead generation site, businesses are often selling a service rather than an individual commodity. As a result, the end goal is simply having a user submit a contact form indicating that they’re interested in a particular service. Sites like this often need to require on multiple channels in order to acquire conversions, and simple steps can often signal interest and trust in the brand while also signalling purchasing intent.   ConversionXL points out that these are divided into two different types of conversions. Citing a report from NN/g, there are two distinct types of micro-conversions that become especially relevant for lead generation sites:  
  • Process Milestones – These actions lead directly to a macro-conversion. In this case, this could include viewing the pricing menu or even a secondary contact form on the site designed to request more information.
  • Secondary Actions – These actions don’t necessarily translate to a particular conversion funnel, but signal interest and trust in the brand or the product. This could include visiting a certain number of pages, comments on a blog post, or sharing a page using social media. Other actions also include downloading an ebook or whitepaper–something to supplement your conversion funnel by requesting a newsletter subscription to access the gated content. Those who fill out the form are indicating trust, brand affinity, and a willingness to read more of your content.
  It’s critically important to look at these secondary actions as a paramount part of your marketing efforts. Since the financial decision may take place without a physical meeting or phone conversation, secondary actions often serve to build trust in the brand, augmenting the sales pitch by illustrating your site’s ability to act as an authority and a resource for these brands. Again, it’s crucial to find ways to nurture these channels and identify how to reach more users that trust the brand and can amplify your content’s reach. This can happen across a number of different channels: From email marketing to content marketing and social media, brands can develop ways to build trust for their site and nurture the potential to groom leads out of these very preliminary signs of interest.

Blog Conversions

If the site is purely content driven, typically your macro-conversions would be unique visitors. This would give you a platform on which to build out your advertising pricing so that advertisers can get a sense of the amount of impressions and ads your site may serve. However, there are some significant micro-conversions that, in this case, could be lumped in with process milestones in order to better understand your visitor and nurture further visits. These could include the following:  
  • Sharing a certain piece on social media
  • Commenting on a blog post indicating engagement with the content
  • Visits to at least three pages or more
  • Time on site goals
  Time-on-site goals and pages visited goals are part of the default settings for custom goals within Analytics. Setting these up can be an easy way to open your eyes to additional marketing opportunities and ensure that you’re seeing a growing audience. Additionally, by measuring the micro-conversions on your blog, you can better measure the marketing channels that had the greatest impact–both for converting visitors and those who seemed to simply register interest and trust in the topics that you’re covering. What are some of the micro-conversions that you find to be important? Let us know in the comments below! For more information on how to better measure and understand your traffic, user behavior, and conversions, sign up for our newsletter!  [grwebform url=”″ css=”on” center=”on” center_margin=”200″/]

What’s the Scoop about Spam Referral Traffic?

Image courtesy of Christian Barmala

What’s the Scoop about Referral Spam Traffic?

In the world of SEO and online marketing, there is something out there that haunts us day and night, and keeps attacking and slashing like a villain from those terribly great horror movies from the 80’s. This culprit is Spam Referral Traffic. It is the talk of the town mainly because it keeps multiplying, there currently isn’t a cure-all solution for it, and the major search engines, like Google, haven’t made any major progress to put a stop to it. I know that a lot of people have discussed this topic, and there are many sources out on tips and tricks on how to get rid of (some) of it. However, I wanted to discuss exactly WHAT spam referral traffic is, WHY it is, and then provide the latest tips and tricks on HOW to get rid of it.

WHAT is this Referral Spam?

Spam referral traffic is essentially “fake traffic” that shows up within a website’s analytics metrics. They show up as URLs in the referral section of your reporting and because referral traffic is one of the major source categories within analytics, having this data showing up within the data can severely compromise the data for that website. This is especially the case if it’s a younger or smaller website that doesn’t get a lot of traffic on an average per month basis. There are “good bots” and “bad bots” that crawl websites throughout the internet. An example of a “good bot” is Googlebot. And we have to be very nice to this “good bot,” especially knowing that it determines your rankings on Google. But there are “bad bots” out there as well, and many of them are the source of this Spam Referral Traffic. This traffic comes from “bad bots” that people create for spamming purposes. The majority of spam referral traffic is known as “Ghost Referrers.” And they are called this because they never actually visit your website, but in fact go after your Google Analytics directly. The way that they accomplish this is through Google’s own Measurement Protocol, and by utilizing this, the spammers submit their data directly to the Google Analytics data. Ohow featured a pretty cool infographic that shows how Ghost Spam Works. I have included a shot of this below:  

WHY is there Spam Referral traffic?

Ultimately, the spammers are trying to get traffic back to their websites. So when people see these URLs within their site’s Google Analytics data, more often than not, curiosity will take over, people will navigate to that website in order to see what it is, and then they got you! Mission accomplished. These spammers are sending their “bad bots” to thousands of websites a day, and even if a small number of the website owners are navigating to these sites on a daily basis, that is a consistent flow of traffic to their sites! These people use the enticement of the steady flow of traffic as a selling point, and try to sell their services, or ad placements locations on their sites to potential customers. How do they sleep at night? 😉

HOW to tell if you have a Spam Referral Traffic Problem?

If there is a mystery URL showing up in your analytics data, and you suspect that it might be spam referral traffic, there are a couple of ways to identify if it is in fact spam traffic.
  1. First is the name of the site. If the URL says something suspicious like “” or one of my favorites, “” then chances are, it’s a spam site. Ohow provided a list of some of the most common spam referral sources here.
  2. Second is the Bounce Rate. Each and every one of these spam referrals will show a 100% bounce rate within the data.
  3. Third would be the Time On Site metrics, which will usually show up as a “0.00.”

HOW can I get rid of this Spam referral traffic?

One thing to point out is that there currently isn’t a simple one-step solution to get rid of this traffic. However, people have come up with a variety of solutions that have helped get rid of the spam, and get their analytics data back to “purity”. I will briefly cover some of the ways to do this. I wont go into too much detail, but I have included some good sources, so you can research each of these methods at your leisure.
Image courtesy of: Bruce Clay, Inc.

Option #1. Block Spam Traffic through the htaccess File

Moz provided an explanation of this process, and you can check this out here. To quote the article: “The best way to block referrers from accessing your site at all is to block them in your .htaccess file in the root directory of your domain. You can copy and paste the following code into your .htaccess file, assuming you’re on an Apache server.” This is a proven way to remove some of the spam traffic, however as more spam referral sites are created, you do have to keep updating your htaccess file. So if your website is only getting infiltrated by a handful of spam referral sites, this is a good way to do this.

Option #2. Remove Bots with Special Filters within Google Analytics

Within Analytics itself, you can use filters to filter out a lot of things from your analytics data. Some of these include IP addresses, specific country traffic, and more. You can also use these to weed out the spam referral traffic. provided a good step-by-step process for implementing this here. And our friends at Moz provided a good source for this about halfway down their article here. One important step that you need to take before setting any filters like above is to always keep a view of your website data that is raw and untampered data. This way, you can always go back to the pure data if you need to extract information.

Option #3. Utilize a WordPress Application

If your website is built with WordPress, there are special applications or widgets out there that you can use to filter out the spam referral traffic. These widgets are fairly easy to use, and you can quickly add in spam referral sources without having to go into the htaccess file directly. Here’s an example of one of these application, provided by

Option #4. Implement Meta Referrer Tags

This is one of the newest methods of filtering out the spam referral traffic, and truth be told, I am still trying to wrap my head around this method. However it has been proven affective, and there is a good breakdown of it provided by the great people at Moz. You can view this article about adding Meta Referrer Tags here.

How to talk to your Clients about Spam Referral Traffic?

One of the challenges that SEOs face currently is explaining exactly what spam referral traffic is to their clients, and setting the right expectations about them. I have several points that I feel are important to convey to them.
  • First is that this is happening across the board, and is affecting websites big and small.
  • Second, the referral spam traffic does not affect organic search traffic. In fact these are not affecting a website’s search volume at all. As TheSEMPost concluded in their post, Google doesn’t include this into their ranking factors, which is good.
  • Third, that this is an on-going initiative. As more spam referral sources keep showing up in the analytic data, continuous action needs to be taken in order to keep the spam referral traffic removal updated.

In Conclusion

Spam referral traffic is here to stay and will continue to affect all of our websites as long as Google and the major search engines continue to allow them. So I think that we should all collectively send very strongly worded letters to Google and ask them to finally do something about it. Until this day comes, however, it is important to be educated about the enemy itself, know steps on how you can remedy the situation, and how your can achieve traffic success for yourself, as well as for your clients. Happy SEO-ing folks!
Image courtesy of: Vassilis

3 Ways to Step Up Your International Geo-Targeting SEO Game

The Internet is a big place, and there are millions of companies in different geographic regions around the world trying to increase their business presence online – not only in their own country, but in other countries as well. Google, in turn, has more than 70 offices in more than 40 countries around the globe. In an effort to better index content from different countries, Google has set up country-specific versions of the search-giant to better serve those areas — from Australia to Zimbabwe, and they all have slightly different algorithms, not to mention different languages, that require a slightly different strategy for each of them. If you have a website and suspect that you might benefit from an international SEO plan, you should first look for some specific indicators to see if you are ready to take this leap into the international. Aleyda Solis, an esteemed International SEO Consultant from Orainti and Seer Interactive, posted a great checklist and infographic on that can help you answer this question. You can view Aleyda’s post here, and I have pulled a couple points from it below:
  • Determine if you have sufficient traffic (total and organic) from other countries within Google Analytics.
  • Check that your website gets adequate visibility within a specific country within Webmaster Tools.
  • Verify that your search targets get decent keyword search traffic in other countries with tools like SEMRush, and/or Adwords Keyword Planner.
If you believe that you meet the criteria, then you are ready to get started! Below I will present 3 different methods to help maximize your International SEO efforts that will help your business better reach your target market and your target location! Below are some tips that I have come across during my own experiences that will help your business within a specific country, or any geo-location where you might have some prospective customers.

Option #1: Set up a specific country-coded TLD for that country.

It is theorized that a country’s specific Google will have a tendency to favor websites that reside within that country. And this might in turn be reflected within the SERP placements. So if your company has a presence in a specific country, you might want to consider setting up a specific TLD, or “Top Level Domain” that is specific to that country. And doing so might help you click-through rate as well. In this community post on, and quoting from Moz’s Cyrus Shepard: “Using a country level domain can boost your SEO targeting in that specific area, may help with click-through rate depending on local biases, and sometimes it’s easier to create a country specific ‘brand’ with this approach.” That is pretty cool! So, if you want to grow your presence and rankings in a place like New Zealand, you might want to consider setting up a domain, or “brand” that is specific to that country. An example of this would be, or even a subdomain option like One thing to point out is, if you are trying to target multiple countries with the same website, and if you do decided to set up multiple TLDs, that means that you will have to do SEO for each of them separately. This might actually double the workload for you. Some of the other negatives are the expenses to setup multiple domains, the hassle of working with multiple Google Analytics profiles, and even the possibility of citizenship restrictions. Some TLDs are more heavily regulated than others, and you can see a decent list of the numerous ccTLDs available, and their specific requirements here. Some of them are pretty humorous. For instance, if you were planning on setting up a ccTLD in Antarctica, you have to be from a “government organization who are signatories to the Antarctic Treaty”. LOL! Another point that Aleyda Solis touched on in her Moz post, again located here, is that if you are targeting based on language primarily, a ccTLD might not be the best idea for you. Instead, you might want to consider featuring different language options within subdirectories or even subdomains on your website.

Option #2: Set up Basic Geographic Targeting within Webmaster Tools.

Webmaster Tools is Google’s olive branch for webmasters and SEOs alike, and you can utilize it to not only clear those pesky crawl errors and show top search trends, but also to help with your geo-targeting. There are some easy steps that you can take within Webmaster Tools to set country preferences that basically informs Google that you would like to be favored in a specified region or country. The great people at Search Engine Land provided steps on how to accomplish this. Just follow these easy steps:
  1. Designate which website you would like to target on the homepage of Webmaster Tools.
  2. Click on that Website.
  3. Under Search Traffic, click International Targeting
  4. In the Geographic Target section, select the option to target either by Location or by Language.
You can quickly and easily set up specific geo-targeting for either your entire site, a subdomain of your site, or even a specific subfolder on your website.

Option #3: Set Up Hreflang Markups.

You can take Geographic targeting to the next level by adding Rel=”Alternate” Hreflang Annotation to your site. This helps Googlebot determine which URLs on a particular site should be targeted to visitors based on both language, and geographic location. This option does require some coding know-how, so talk to your favorite programmer; or, if you want to do it yourself, Google has been nice enough to provide three ways we can implement these, using a Spanish website as an example. So just substitute with your own language preference or country: ➢ HTML link element in header. In the HTML <head> section of, add a link element pointing to the Spanish version of that webpage at, like this: <link rel=”alternate” hreflang=”es” href=”” /> ➢ HTTP header. If you publish non-HTML files (like PDFs), you can use an HTTP header to indicate a different language version of a URL: Link: <>; rel=”alternate”; hreflang=”es” To specify multiple hreflang values in a Link HTTP header, separate the values with commas like so: Link: <>; rel=”alternate”; hreflang=”es”,<>; rel=”alternate”; hreflang=”de” ➢ Sitemap. Instead of using markup, you can submit language version information in a Sitemap. If you do decide to featuring multiple language variations on your website, you can either have the website auto-detect where a user is visiting from, and direct them to the appropriate version, or even leave that decision up to the user. Studies have shown that it is better for user-experience, and SEO in general, to direct all visitors to one version, and provide an option to toggle between the different language versions. If you do decide to do this, be sure to present these options in a very prominent, easy-to-find spot on the page, like the upper left quadrant of your header.

Language AND Location targeting? Be careful!

Being the Devil’s Advocate, like Keanu, I would like to point out an instance where it would not be a good idea to implement geo-targeting within Webmaster Tools or the Hreflang markup. This would be with the false assumption that if you have a website version in a specific language, it should only be targeted to a specific country. For example, if you have a website that is fully or partially translated in French, you might not want to exclusively geo-target France, because there might be potential customers in another part of the world, like Canada, that are fluent in French and possibly interested in your products. So be sure to factor this into your decision and not limit your potential business opportunities. In Conclusion…there are many ways to geo-target your website and get some extremely powerful results. You can start with something simple, like setting the Geographic Targeting in Webmaster Tools, and then later move into something more advanced, like fully translating a version of your site, spend the money for designated TLDs, or executing the Hreflang markups. So consider your current website’s traffic and statistics, as well as your business goals and marketing objectives and make the decision to boost your geo-targeting today! For more information on bringing some light to your digital marketing strategy, contact us today.

Image courtesy of: carolineCCB